ENTERPRISE 2.0 BY ANDREW McAFEE December 2, 2009Posted by Terry.Cho in Enterprise 2.0.
Tags: Andrew Mcafee, e2.0, Enterprise 2.0
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I’m reading the book “ENTERPRISE 2.0 BY ANDREW McAFEE”. I am a previewer in some Korean publishing company. They sometimes ask me about what book deserved to translated to Korean.
Yesterday i got the book for a preview. Actually i was waiting for the book. Andrew Mcafee is professor in Havard business school who is one of most famous people in E2.0 world.
As i thought the book looks great, it introduced case study and reason why we need E2.0 and introduction of E2.0 , success strategy etc.
I’m reading this book with excitement.
Enterprise 2.0-Part1/2:Intro and architecture October 27, 2009Posted by Terry.Cho in Enterprise 2.0.
Tags: 4C model, e2.0, Enterprise2.0
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After current enterprise model has been built, requirement of employee from company has been changing. There were two dramatic changes – Industry revolution, Information revolution.
In 18 century the industry revolution was begun from England. It is represented by mass production. Well-defined process makes employee to be parts of the big process. Individual capability, creativity and personality are not important. Company wants employee to work with same capability as a part. It enables the company to predict their output.
After the industry revolution, 3r’d wave came. It is information revolution. IT technology brings efficiency to a company and also breaks a wall from regional restriction. Employee has to work in global and smart enough to adopt complex IT system.
So what is next wave? We are fronted in 4’Th wave. It is WEB2.0.
In 2006 Times announced “A person of year”. It was “YOU!!”. In former times user just consumed information with traditional media (News paper, Television etc) . With growth of internet, the user gets a powerful bidirectional tool that is internet. The user can produce information and share it with other users by using internet. The consumer has been prosumer (produce and consume information). They collaborate in Wikipedia or open source project. They also suggest idea or give a feed back to company. They begin to make new value by using internet. It is WEB 2.0.
Key point of this 4’Th wave is “Open” and “Participation”. This is now being applied enterprise. Employees share their knowledge with their blog and wiki. They are discussing in internet forum. They are searching information that is required their business from internet. Employee starts to generate new value by themselves for their business. It breaks traditional vertical communication structure. Employee communicates across their business unit and across vertical organization structure. Finally enterprise wants employee to be creative and collaborative to make a new value.
Here is summary of expectation to employee from enterprise.
|Changes||Requirement for employee|
|2nd wave Industrial revolution||Mass production.
Processed enabled business
|Parts of mess process.|
|3rd wave Informational revolution||High efficiency.
Information is product.
|Efficient and globalized
Smart enough to use complex IT system.
|4’Th wave WEB 2.0||Open and participation.
Occurrence of pro-sumer
|Creative and collaborative
So what is WEB2.0? WEB2.0 is based on Web with internet. It is hard to define with some word. It is just paradigm not a technology. We can summarize characteristics like this.
User creates contents and share or sell : User creates contents and uploads it to YouTube, Flicker etc. And share the contents with other users. The content is not only produced by mess media.
Establish connection between people :Users manage their human network with SNS (Social Networking Service) like Face book and expand the network.
Generate a new value by collaboration :By using virtual collaboration space (WEB), users create new value. One of most famous collaboration example is Wikipedia. A lot of users post their knowledge. It is biggest dictionary in the world. Some developer contributes open source project like apache project. They makes software product.
Sharing information : User generated contents are existing in internet. It is shared to other users and is reused by the users.
Enhanced information approach and categorization : Traditionally approach to information is exact based search like google. But the approach is hard to find right information that I want. Rank based social book mark, micro blog like twitter, Tag cloud enables us to find right information more easily. Lots of recommended contents means it has high value.
Extension with open platform (Mash-up) :One of interesting characteristics of WEB2.0 is OPEN-API. WEB2.0 exposes their functionalities thru OPEN-API. So user can compose the OPEN-API and generate new value. For example user can mash-up Google Map & Restaurant information web site.
Communication with various way with various new tools :Communication is very important factor for collaboration and human network management. WEB2.0 provides new & innovative tool. Instance messaging based 1:1 synchronous communication. Video conferencing over different regions. Twitter based 1:anonymous users communication. In addition mobile removes time and location restriction.
Can use anywhere and anytime with mobile device :In year 2009 there are many smart phone & mobile platform. Apple IPhone, Rim blackberry, Google Android etc. This mobile platform has very rich & speedy user interface. And network speed is highly increased. As a result mobile environment has been changed. Many WEB2.0 applications are supporting the mobile platform. It makes us to free from place and time restriction.
Enhanced rich user interface :Traditional www user interface is image and text based static web. But from WEB2.0 the user interface is enriched with AJAX,FLEX etc. The interface looks like desktop application. It is pretty and comfortable. Indeed it leverage usability of WEB2.0 applications.
WEB2.0 has many other characteristics. But in this article, focus is how to apply WEB2.0 to enterprise. So I just close the WEB2.0 introduction here.
As I explained WEB2.0 has a lot of advantages. Beginning of Enterprise 2.0 is started from here. “How to apply the profit of WEB2.0 to enterprise?” Enterprise version of WEB2.0 is Enterprise 2.0
To apply the profit we have to research WEB2.0 spheres. Here is example scenario
① William wants to know a person who can help William to design Enterprise2.0 concept.
② William find Johns by searching twitter with “#E20” tag.
③ William sent twitter message to Johns to ask some help.
④ Johns reply the message and they have a communications. But the communication gets more complex and need more conversation. They change their communication tools to Google Talk (Messenger)
⑤ William gets enough information. And William and Johns wants to discuss more about enterprise 2.0. So they open a thread in internet forum with “enterprise2.0” title.
⑥ William posts the news that the forum is opened in twitter and blog.
⑦ Many people know that there is a forum by twitter and blog search.
⑧ Many discussions are occurred in the forum.
⑨ William thinks that they can draw enterprise 2.0 architecture. So he opened Wiki page to collaboration.
⑩ Members of the forum post enterprise 2.0 architecture on the Wiki and the contents is matured.
⑪ The document is matured enough. William released the document in his blog. The posting is notified by twitter and blog trackback. Indeed many users internet share the information.
This is formal scenario of WEB2.0 usage. Let’s analysis this scenario.
In activity 1,2 William found Johns by using WEB2.0 tool. It is “Connection”. The Connection means that finding right people or right contents in internet.
In activity 3~6 William communicated with many people about enterprise 2.0. It is “Communication” Twitter ,Forum ,Instance messenger are good example of the communication.
And William opened Wiki to make enterprise 2.0 architecture. It is “Collaboration” As a result William made enterprise 2.0 contents. It is “Contents”. The content is value that is generated by collaboration.
These Connection, Communication, Collaboration and Contents are 4 main factor of WEB2.0. I call these 4 components as “4C” and interaction of the 4C is “4C model”. Each component of the 4C model has own value. It communicates with each other and generates value.
Let’s summarize this 4C model.
|Connection||Finding right person and right information|
|Communication||Communicate with people|
|Collaboration||To generate value, co-work with other people|
|Contents||Store value in www|
Enterprise 2.0 Architecture
Based on 4C model, we can define Enterprise 2.0 system reference architecture. Here is the reference architecture
Each 4C model have realized component.
Connection component in the model has tools for connection. For example Microblog like twitter can be good tools for reaching a people. Search engine and Tag cloud helps people to reach the right information.
Communication component also has a lot of software tools. Instance Messengers for synchronous & 1:1 communication. Forum can be used to communicate with 1:N for specific issues. Micro blog also can be used in Communication for 1:Anonymous & Asynchronous communication.
In Collaboration area there are many new software. Wiki and Team blog is most traditional things. Nowday many vendors provides new collaboration tools like workspace (similar as group ware. It contains team wiki, team forum, dashboard and email integration, group management etc.)
Contents components commonly stores contents and share the contents with others.
These are example of 4C component software. In addition we need infrastructure to provide better service.
First, Enterprise portal. Each software that I mentioned above is silo system. It means each software has own user interface & ACL system. So to provide integrated view to end user. We need User Interface integration Layer. It is portal. It integrates user interface with Portlet, Clipping etc. In addition it provides single sign on features & ACL, Entitlement etc.
Even if the portal supports ACL and entitlement it is just for integrated layer. Something has to handle all of user identification information and more integrated authentication & authorization. It is covered by Identity Management System. It is IDM.
To provide freedom from location and time constraint, enterprise 2.0 need to support mobile device. There is many ways like WAP based portal. On device client etc. From 2008 Smartphone is rapidly developed and used (RIM/Blackberry, Apple/IPhone,Google/Android etc). Before that the mobile based interface was just WAP. But after we get a mobile platform & 3G network (Fast & support IP address) Mobile interface has been enhanced a lot. As a result it provides very rich and great mobile application infrastructures to us.
A reason why WEB2.0 is spread is it has a Rich user interface. The interface looks similar like desktop application. It is enabled by RIA technologies like AJAX and Flex etc. In the same way of WEB2.0, enterprise 2.0 also has to have Rich user interface.
In next article, i will introduce about strategy for enterprise 2.0.
 In year 2008 Niall cook announced another 4C Model(Collaboration ,Connection ,Communication ,Cooperation) in his book “Enterprise 2.0” but the concept and approach are different
Micro blog(Twitter) in enterprise #3-Implementation Strategies September 29, 2009Posted by Terry.Cho in Enterprise 2.0, Micro blog.
Tags: e20, enterprise, micro blog, micro blogging, twitter
Enterprise Micro blog architecture
Here is enterprise micro blog architecture. I already described common micro blog architecture. Here I describes additional features for enterprise version of micro blog.
Figure 2 Micro blog architecture for enterprise
Micro blog support multi type of user interfaces.
(1) Web interface
Most traditional common interface. It running on web browser in desktop.
(2) Mobile device
Mobile phone or PDA. Depends on service country and device type service interfaces are different. 3G phone supports mobile application. 2G or 1G phone just support SMS and MMS. To support mobile device platform and interface type should be defined before designing architecture
Company has a enterprise portal (EP). To integrate micro blog with EP. JSR-160,WSRP(Remote Portlet spec) is used.
(4) IM (Instant Messenger)
Sending a message to micro blog by messenger. Receive a micro blog message from messenger.
(5) Other enterprise applications
Micro blog makes synergy by integrating with legacy enterprise system. For example notification of work flow (Like expense workflow process notification) is replaced with micro blog instead of email
IDM (Identity Management System)
Company has organization structure(Tree) and employee profile. We call it as IDM (Identity management system). Enterprise micro blog uses this user id. So the enterprise micro blog has connectivity for integration of enterprise IDM system. It also supports Single Sign On. (SSO)
Enterprise micro blog requires mobile gateway. Especially in case of global company mobile gateway is different in countries. Because career vendor’s integration style is different.
Enterprise search engine and social analyze tool
As I mentioned earlier messages in micro blog enables us to share knowledge. For sharing knowledge search is required. Company commonly has their enterprise search engine. Employee can search in micro blog system. But if the enterprise search combines message in micro blog. It leverages information sharing between employees.
In addition trend that is generated by analyzing message is important for risk management. This trend is reported by social analyze tool
Policy & Compliance Rule
Micro blog in enterprise has to solve security issue. In enterprise some group requires closed communication. For example discussion in HR team should not be opened outside of the team. Because promotion or expiration information is very sensitive to employee.
And to publish internal message to external micro blog (Twitter) It needs filtering based on company security & compliance rule.
(1) Selective publishing
Filtering message when publish internal micro blog messages to external micro blog system. It automatically warn when prohibited keyword is detected during external publishing
(2) Multilevel access & grouping
Support closed group communication.
Challenge in enterprise micro blog
Introduction of micro blog is not an introducing system but a change internal communication culture. Change communication style from vertical & closed to horizontal & opened. It can be faced on resistance from stakeholders
Message in micro blog can be confidential information.
If company try to use internal & external micro blog. Publishing is controlled by policy
In addition before deploying enterprise micro blog system legal issue should be reviewed. For example SOX law in US let company to store communication law 7 years. This kind of legal issue should be applied in the system architecture.
Micro blog is quite new in enterprise. So product is not matured.
And requirements of WEB2.0 application in enterprise is different. Because it is not a formal business system. It is totally related with company culture. So customization issue is different in company.
Before choosing enterprise micro blog solution, customization should be considered.
From now I introduced use case of enterprise micro blog and overall architecture. But achieving benefit of enterprise micro blog is not so easy. It requires cultural changes. It is long journey. And people is getting smart during project is going with lesson learned. Indeed I recommend step-by-step approach.
Step 1. Implement basic micro blog system
Install basic micro blog system Integrate with legacy user profile system and messaging system (mobile,email,im integration)
Step 2. Revitialization
In this step convince stakeholders. Change a communication culture step by step. Pull value of micro blog system. After finishing this step enterprise micro blog is culture in the company. And many information is archived in the system.
Step 3. extension
Integrate with other system to make synergy.For example, enterprise search + relationship based search. Trend analysis ,Crisis monitoring
Step 4. Develop new model
Based on enterprise biz characteristics, develop new micro blog model
For example. With LBS(Location Based Service) construction company check up health of employee and represent it as status. If a employee has a accident, management team quickly meet it.
Micro blog(Twitter) in enterprise #2-Usecase of micro blog in enterprise September 28, 2009Posted by Terry.Cho in Enterprise 2.0, Micro blog.
Tags: enterprise, micro blog, twitter, use case
Strategy of micro blog in enterprise
We understand how many values micro blog system has (In previous article). So what can we do in enterprise? Can we bring the potential of the system into efficiency of enterprise? Here is strategy
Micro blog for collaboration framework in enterprise
What can we do with micro blog in enterprise? There are use cases about internal use of micro blog system.
Develop personal brand.
Messages in micro blog are related to quality of personal brand. Message of expertise category or progress of work makes people know about the writer’s quality. Company uses this personal brand to optimize efficiency of their organization and let the company selects appropriate people for their work objective.
Aware risk quickly
By analyzing RT and hash tags in micro blog, company aware trend and risk. Field employee becomes aware risk most quickly. Analyzing trend let manager know that “Many employees think the problem can be risky. Many other people agree about that by RT etc.” It makes company find risk quickly and prepare the risk.
Make connection to expert
In huge company it is hard to find person who has an experience or knowledge about a problem. To find the people, employee asks to their manager with formal process. (face to face meeting or writing email.) The manager tries to find the people by asking another people etc. It takes a lot of time. And hard to find appropriate people.
In micro blog system, employee finds a people with hash tag search. And measure his expertise with history of his message in micro blog. If he is suitable to the job. Employee can ask a help by posting message in micro blog. This work is done in micro blog in a few minute. But it takes long time in traditional enterprise communication style.
People saved link of useful information in micro blog. Qualified or useful information are re posted (RT) by others. People can search information by searching the link with tag and recognized what contents is useful (How many copied by others? How many favorite by others?)
It is different style of search. Traditional enterprise search is based on accuracy. But this search mechanism is based on relationship and reputation. Many recommended information is more useful.
Share business context
Person who is newly joined a new job or project cannot understand project status, issue etc. It needs education and time to understand context. Message in micro blog represents status and emotion of employee. Employee’s message history means history of his work. So other people understand context – “What had been going on?” “What had been happened?” “What issue was ?”
Raise relationship and develop trust
Message in micro blog is not formal form but casual form. It expresses emotional things and status. Reader can understand what he is thinking and give a comment to his current status. It leverages communication between employees. Indeed it strengthens relationships.
In structured organization it is hard to communicate with higher level manager from employee. In Micro blog system employee subscribe higher level (CXX Level) message and can understand about him, communicate with him. It helps employee reduce gap from organization.
Horizontal and opened communication
Traditionally enterprise has structured organization. Communication is established by the organization structure. It has a lot of stack. The stack makes communication burden.
As a result communication time is increased and some idea is not reached to the stake holders.
Communication in micro blog blows away this gap. Micro blog is 1:N communication. Employee can post message and get a feedback from whoever who has interest in. It changed communication style from traditional vertical style to horizontal and opened style.
Opened communication is objectives what every company want to achieve. It reduces communication time and share idea easily without organization wall.
Near Real Time communication
With mobile device support and async communication basics micro blog supports near real time communication without place & time restriction.
Micro blog in enterprise for external communication
So what about external communication tools for enterprise with micro blog? Already many company uses twitter.com for their marketing purpose. For example Amazon.com posted their news to twitter first not a formal media (News paper etc)
Provide product information and event information.
Communicate with Customer.
Company analyze customer trend by analyzing twitter message. Get a feedback about their service and product.
CEO of Doosan group uses Twitter.com very well.
Here is episode about company marketing. One of customer’s children wants to get a Doosan excavator model. The customer simply post his thinking to Twitter and shared with CEO of Doosan. So he really sent Doosan excavator model to the customer.
This episode was posted many blogs and re-tweeted many time. As a result Doosan can advertise name value of company and their excavator with just one excavator model price and without any marketing budget, any agency.
There can be many other usage of micro blog for external communication in enterprise. But this document focus on internal usage of micro blog enterprise. So I will not mention about external communication with micro blog anymore.
In next article i will introduce enterprise micro blog adoption strategy. (Architecture, Challenges, Implementation process)
Micro blog(Twitter) in Enterprise #1 September 28, 2009Posted by Terry.Cho in Enterprise 2.0, Micro blog.
Tags: case study, enterprise micro blog, micro blog, micro blog architecture, micro blogging, twitter
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Micro blog in enterprise – #1
(Analyze common micro blog system)Terry.Cho (byungwook.cho AT ORACLE DOT COM)
Most famous micro blog Twitter.com started service from 2006. And now number of monthly visitors exceeds 182 billion people. It impacted 2008 US election and Iran election. This article analyzes micro blog service in WEB 2.0 sphere and suggests strategy to adopt micro blog to enterprise.
Micro blog is very simple 1:N communication system. Microblogging allows people to send brief text updates to stay abreast of activities within a group by receiving frequent published updates, typically of 140 characters or less. Basic mechanism of micro blog is author post short message and other user subscribe the message by “Following” the author. This is difference with other messaging system. In case of email and IM, author choice subscriber. But in micro blog, subscriber choice author. So message written by author is not for specific people but for anonymous. It also has filtering mechanism. For example micro blog commonly use “Hashtag”. Author post message with this hashtag. So the other user can search message which he has interest in with this hash tag like keyword.
What do people do with micro blog?
Why people use micro blog. We have to consider this. Followed by report from “Consumer Internet Barometer” (TNS and The conference Board. 2009/Q2) 41.6% of user uses micro blog for communicating with friend. 29.1% users for updating current status. 25.8% users for searching news and information.
Figure 1.Why people use twitter? (Source:“Consumer Internet Barometer” from TNS and The Conference Board”)
This means 70% of users are using twitter for managing personal network. Human network management and communication are main purpose. It is emotional perspective object not a reasonable perspective.
Here are some scenario about effect of micro blog.
Message in twitter has the other value. It is about “What I am thinking about? What is my status?” It can be a information to others. For example a user has interest in WEB2.0. He will write a message with external link for the information with hash tag. He will gather the information If another user want to get a WEB2.0 information. He will search WEB2.0 in twitter. The search results provides external link about WEB2.0. One of interest thing is if some information is useful (external link) many other user saved link. It shows quality of search result.
If a user wants to find expert ,he can search people who wrote message related in the issue. And then review his history. “What he did”, “What his interest” by doing this the user can find expert. Finally send message to the expert and can make a relationship with the expert.
The other usage of micro blog is by analyzing hash tag or re-tweet we can aware trend. Many announce tags and re-tweeted message means many people have interest in the issue.
Twitter is very simple communication tool. Just posting message and subscribe. But as I mentioned above its potential is very high. It is a reason why people is raving in twitter.
Success factor of twitter
Even though we already have alternative messaging solution like email, phone, IM, why micro blog is getting popular? Here are reasons.
Easy to use
In emai,l to send a message “start email client” à “Log in” à “Write button” à “Select receiver” à “Write title” à “Write mail” à “Press send”
In micro blog “launch micro blog client” à “automatically login” à “write message” & enter or in your mobile phone “write message” à “press send”. It is very simple and very easy to use.
Can use anywhere anytime
One reason of popularity of micro blog is free from place and time. Mobile device enables this. User can post and read status anywhere anytime by using mobile device. Furthermore smart phone provides rich user interface like desktop application. User posts status with photo with smart phone. It enriches quality of message. Message length constraint of mobile device and asynchronous messaging of mobile text message goes well to micro blog.
Near real time
Message of micro blog is 140 text characters and with mobile support it is free from place and time. So user can update the status frequently and the content is real time. For example airplane crash news in Hudson River in US was happened in 2009. User takes photo with mobile phone and post a message on Twitter. The other user re tweet this message. The news is spread very quickly. Formal medias (Newspaper, TV) news are beyond twitter.
Photo posted in Twitter with Hudson plane crash news by citizen
Support Open API
As I mentioned above, micro blog is very simple system but has a lot of potential. Open API exposes this potential to outside and makes a value. By mashing up micro blog with other WEB2.0 applications new value is generated.
By using Twitter Open API TweetStats.com and HashTags.com analyze RT & HashTag and make a trend report. It is a case of re-use of information in Twitter with Open API.
We have reviewed success factors of micro blog. Even if it is very simple system it has a little difference in communication. Basically it is 1:N asynchronous communication with short message. That is free from place and time restriction. It expresses current status and emotions with near real time. Sometimes it doesn’t have any specific objectives. But the twit message can be useful information to others.
Here is summary table about difference with other communication tools.
Common Micro blog architecture
Commonly micro blog system has 6 components.
It handles user authentication for logging.
It also provides integrity with other authentication system like Open Id. And support Open API authentication and id mapping. For example user can change status of Facebook with Twitter message. It needs integration between facebook and twitter.
(2) Search Engine
Find user. Find message with hash tag etc.
(3) Posting System
Manage messages in micro blog system. Micro blog system is not complex. But it has a lot of transaction. User posts short message frequently. And search message often. So performance and capacity is important
(4) Link (Shorten)
Micro blog has message length restriction to support SMS. So it is hard to use original HTML link in the message. (It can be very long..) So micro blog system supports “Shorten” . It is alias of URL. It shorten the long URL to aliased short URL.
(5) Mobile Gateway
To integrate with mobile device. Mobile gateway is required. Depends on mobile phone ,mobile gateway supports Text based SMS, Image based MMS, and custom protocol(Like REST and WebService) with TCP/IP for smart phone application.
In addition mobile career vendor provide different integration interface. So micro blog system has mediation layer for converting internal protocol to career supported protocol.
(6) Open API
Expose micro blog functionalities to external applications.
Architecture of micro blog system is not complex. But because it has a lot of transaction and provide connectivity for integration(OpenAPI) the system should have high performance requirement and capabilities & scalability.
Opensource CMS. August 28, 2009Posted by Terry.Cho in Enterprise 2.0.
Tags: CMS, EP, Hippo, opensouce, Portal
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Nowdays i’m looking at Oracle Enterprise 2.0 products like Enterprise portal and Universal contents management.
This combination is great. By integrating two products , enterprise can share document easily thru portal.
I found similar solution in opensource. Liferay portal is most popular opensource portal. But i haven’t seen opensource CMS. I found it today.
A few month ago i saw ETL(Extract Transfomration Loading) solution – ODI. I also found opensource ETL solution (Talend). Opensource is now getting stronger. But i don’t know why korean company doesn’t try to use the opensources.